kim tad brahma kim adhyatmam
kim karma purusottama
adhibhutam ca kim proktam
adhidaivam kim ucyate
arjunah uvaca -- Arjuna said; kim -- what; tat -- that; brahma -- Brahman; kim -- what; adhyatmam -- the self; kim -- what; karma -- fruitive activities; purusa-uttama -- Oh Supreme Person; adhibhutam -- the material manifestation; ca -- and; kim -- what; proktam -- is called; adhidaivam -- the demigods; kim -- what; ucyate -- is called.
Arjuna inquired: Oh Supreme Person, what is Brahman? What is the self? What are fruitive activities? What is this material manifestation? And what are the demigods? Please explain this to me.
dehe 'smin madhusudana
prayana-kale ca katham
jneyo 'si niyatatmabhih
adhiyajnah -- the Lord of sacrifice; katham -- how; kah -- who; atra -- here; dehe -- in the body; asmin -- this; madhusudana -- Oh Madhusudana; prayana-kale -- at the time of death; ca -- and; katham -- how; jneyah asi -- You can be known; niyata-atmabhih -- by the self-controlled.
Who is the Lord of sacrifice, and how does He live in the body, Oh Madhusudana? And how can those engaged in devotional service know You at the time of death?
aksaram brahma paramam
svabhavo 'dhyatmam ucyate
sri-bhagavan uvaca -- The Supreme said; aksaram -- indestructible; brahma -- Brahman; paramam -- transcendental; svabhavah -- eternal nature; adhyatmam -- the self; ucyate -- is called; bhuta-bhava-udbhava-karah -- producing the material bodies of the living entities; visargah -- creation; karma -- fruitive activities; samjnitah -- is called.
The Supreme said: The indestructible, transcendental living entity is called Brahman, and his eternal nature is called adhyatma, the self. Action pertaining to the development of the material bodies of the living entities is called karma, or fruitive activities.
adhiyajno 'ham evatra
dehe deha-bhrtam vara
adhibhutam -- the physical manifestation; ksarah -- constantly changing; bhavah -- nature; purusah -- the universal form, including all the demigods, like the sun and moon; ca -- and; adhidaivatam -- called adhidaiva; adhiyajnah -- the Supersoul; aham -- I (Supreme); eva -- certainly; atra -- in this; dehe -- body; deha-bhrtam -- of the embodied; vara -- O best.
O best of the embodied beings, the physical nature, which is constantly changing, is called adhibhuta [the material manifestation]. The universal form of the Lord, which includes all the demigods, like those of the sun and moon, is called adhidaiva. And I, the Supreme, represented as the Supersoul in the heart of every embodied being, am called adhiyajna [the Lord of sacrifice].
smaran muktva kalevaram
yah prayati sa mad-bhavam
yati nasty atra samsayah
anta-kale -- at the end of life; ca -- also; mam -- Me; eva -- certainly; smaran -- remembering; muktva -- quitting; kalevaram -- the body; yah -- he who; prayati -- goes; sah -- he; mat-bhavam -- My nature; yati -- achieves; na -- not; asti -- there is; atra -- here; samsayah -- doubt.
And whoever, at the end of his life, quits his body, remembering Me, at once attains My nature. Of this there is no doubt.
tyajaty ante kalevaram
tam tam evaiti kaunteya
yam yam -- whatever; va api -- at all; smaran -- remembering; bhavam -- nature; tyajati -- gives up; ante -- at the end; kalevaram -- this body; tam tam -- similar; eva -- certainly; eti -- gets; kaunteya -- O son of Kunti; sada -- always; tat -- that; bhava -- state of being; bhavitah -- remembering.
Whatever state of being one remembers when he quits his body, O son of Kunti, that state he will attain without fail.
mam anusmara yudhya ca
mam evaishyasy asamsayah
tasmat -- therefore; sarvesu -- at all; kalesu -- times; mam -- Me; anusmara -- go on remembering; yudhya -- fight; ca -- also; mayi -- unto Me; arpita -- surrendering; manah -- mind; buddhih -- intellect; mam -- unto Me; eva -- surely; esyasi -- you will attain; asamsayah -- beyond a doubt.
Therefore, Arjuna, you should always think of Me and at the same time carry out your prescribed duty of fighting. With your activities dedicated to Me and your mind and intelligence fixed on Me, you will attain Me without doubt.
paramam purusam divyam
abhyasa-yoga -- by practice; yuktena -- being engaged in meditation; cetasa -- by the mind and intelligence; na anya-gamina -- without their being deviated; paramam -- the Supreme; purusam -- Lord; divyam -- transcendental; yati -- one achieves; partha -- O son of Prtha; anucintayan -- constantly thinking of.
He who practices meditatation on the Supreme Lord, his mind constantly engaged in remembering Me, undeviated from the path, he, O Partha, is sure to achieve transcendence.
anor aniyamsam anusmared yah
sarvasya dhataram acintya-rupam
aditya- varnam tamasah parastat
kavim -- the one who knows everything; puranam -- the oldest; anusasitaram -- the controller; anoh -- than the atom; aniyamsam -- smaller; anusmaret -- always thinks of; yah -- one who; sarvasya -- of everything; dhataram -- the maintainer; acintya -- inconceivable; rupam -- whose form; aditya-varnam -- luminous like the sun; tamasah -- to darkness; parastat -- transcendental.
One should meditate upon the Supreme as the one who knows everything, the oldest, the controller, smaller than the smallest atom, maintainer of everything, beyond all material conception, inconceivable, whose Form is luminous like the sun, transcendental, beyond this dark material nature.
bhaktya yuktoyoga-balena caiva
bhruvor madhye pranam avesya samyak
sa tam param purusam upaiti divyam
prayana-kale -- at the time of death; manasa -- by the mind; acalena -- without its being deviated; bhaktya -- in full devotion; yuktah -- engaged; yoga-balena -- by the power of mystic yoga; ca -- also; eva -- certainly; bhruvoh -- the two eyebrows; madhye -- between; pranam -- the life force; avesya -- establishing; samyak -- completely; sah -- he; tam -- that; param -- transcendental; purusam -- the Creator; upaiti -- achieves; divyam -- in the spiritual kingdom.
At the time of death one who fixes his life force between the eyebrows and, by the strength of mystic yoga, with an undeviating mind, engages himself in remembering the Creator in full devotion, will certainly attain to the spiritual kingdom.
visanti yad yatayo vita-ragah
yad icchanto brahmacaryam caranti
tat te padam sangrahena pravaksye
yat -- that which; aksaram -- syllable om; veda-vidah -- persons conversant with the Vedas; vadanti -- say; visanti -- enter; yat -- in which; yatayah -- great sages; vita-ragah -- in the renounced order of life; yat -- that which; icchantah -- desiring; brahmacaryam -- celibacy; caranti -- practice; tat -- that; te -- unto you; padam -- situation; sangrahena -- in summary; pravaksye -- I shall explain.
Persons who are learned in the Vedas, who utter omkara and who are great sages in the renounced order enter into Brahman. Desiring such perfection, one practices celibacy. I shall now briefly explain to you this process by which one may attain salvation.
mano hrdi nirudhya ca
murdhny adhayatmanah pranam
sarva-dvarani -- all the doors of the body; samyamya -- controlling; manah -- the mind; hrdi -- in the heart; nirudhya -- confining; ca -- also; murdhni -- on the head; adhaya -- fixing; atmanah -- of the soul; pranam -- the life force; asthitah -- situated in; yoga-dharanam -- the yogic method.
The yogic method is that of detachment of the senses. By closing all the doors of the senses and fixing the mind on the heart and the life force of the soul at the top of the head (third eye), one establishes himself in mystic yoga.
vyaharan mam anusmaran
yah prayati tyajan deham
sa yati paramam gatim
om -- the combination of letters om (omkara); iti -- thus; eka-aksaram -- the one syllable; brahma -- absolute; vyaharan -- vibrating; mam -- Me (Supreme); anusmaran -- remembering; yah -- anyone who; prayati -- leaves; tyajan -- quitting; deham -- this body; sah -- he; yati -- achieves; paramam -- the supreme; gatim -- destination.
After being situated in this yoga practice and vibrating the sacred syllable om, the supreme combination of letters, if one thinks of The Supreme and quits his body, he will certainly reach the spiritual destination.
yo mam smarati nityasah
tasyaham sulabhah partha
ananya-cetah -- without deviation of the mind; satatam -- always; yah -- anyone who; mam -- Me (Supreme); smarati -- remembers; nityasah -- regularly; tasya -- to him; aham -- I am; su-labhah -- very easy to achieve; partha -- O son of Prtha; nitya -- regularly; yuktasya -- engaged; yoginah -- for the devotee.
For anyone who always regularly remembers Me without mental deviation, I am very easy to obtain, O son of Prtha, because of his regular engagement in devotion.
samsiddhim paramam gatah
mam -- Me; upetya -- achieving; punah -- again; janma -- birth; duhkha-alayam -- place of miseries; asasvatam -- temporary; na -- never; apnuvanti -- attain; maha-atmanah -- the great souls; samsiddhim -- perfection; paramam -- ultimate; gatah -- having achieved.
After attaining Me, the great souls, who are yogis in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection.
punar avartino 'rjuna
mam upetya tu kaunteya
punar janma na vidyate
a-brahma-bhuvanat -- up to the Brahmaloka planet; lokah -- the planetary systems; punah -- again; avartinah -- returning; arjuna -- O Arjuna; mam -- unto Me; upetya -- arriving; tu -- but; kaunteya -- O son of Kunti; punah janma -- rebirth; na -- never; vidyate -- takes place.
From the highest planet in the material world down to the lowest, all are places of misery wherein repeated birth and death take place. But one who attains to My abode, O son of Kunti, never takes birth again.
ahar yad brahmano viduh
te 'ho-ratra-vido janah
sahasra -- one thousand; yuga -- millenniums; paryantam -- including; ahah -- day; yat -- that which; brahmanah -- of Brahma; viduh -- they know; ratrim -- night; yuga -- millenniums; sahasra-antam -- similarly, ending after one thousand; te -- they; ahah-ratra -- day and night; vidah -- who understand; janah -- people.
By human calculation, a thousand ages taken together form the duration of Brahma's one day. And such also is the duration of his night.
avyaktat -- from the unmanifest; vyaktayah -- living entities; sarvah -- all; prabhavanti -- become manifest; ahah-agame -- at the beginning of the day; ratri-agame -- at the fall of night; praliyante -- are annihilated; tatra -- into that; eva -- certainly; avyakta -- the unmanifest; samjnake -- which is called.
At the beginning of Brahma's day, all living entities become manifest from the unmanifest state, and thereafter, when the night falls, they are merged into the unmanifest again.
bhutva bhutva praliyate
ratry-agame 'vasah partha
bhuta-gramah -- the aggregate of all living entities; sah -- these; eva -- certainly; ayam -- this; bhutva bhutva -- repeatedly taking birth; praliyate -- is annihilated; ratri -- of night; agame -- on the arrival; avasah -- automatically; partha -- O son of Prtha; prabhavati -- is manifest; ahah -- of daytime; agame -- on the arrival.
Again and again, when Brahma's day arrives, all living entities come into being, and with the arrival of Brahma's night they are helplessly annihilated.
'vyakto 'vyaktat sanatanah
yah sa sarvesu bhutesu
nasyatsu na vinasyati
parah -- transcendental; tasmat -- to that; tu -- but; bhavah -- nature; anyah -- another; avyaktah -- unmanifest; avyaktat -- to the unmanifest; sanatanah -- eternal; yah sah -- that which; sarvesu -- all; bhutesu -- manifestation; nasyatsu -- being annihilated; na -- never; vinasyati -- is annihilated.
Yet there is another unmanifest nature, which is eternal and is transcendental to this manifested and unmanifested matter. It is supreme and is never annihilated. When all in this world is annihilated, that part remains as it is.
tam ahuh paramam gatim
yam prapya na nivartante
tad dhama paramam mama
ayvaktah -- unmanifested; aksarah -- infallible; iti -- thus; uktah -- is said; tam -- that; ahuh -- is known; paramam -- the ultimate; gatim -- destination; yam -- which; prapya -- gaining; na -- never; nivartante -- come back; tat -- that; dhama -- abode; paramam -- supreme; mama -- My.
That which is unmanifest and infallible is known as the ultimate destination, gaining which one never returns- that is the abode of the Supreme.
bhaktya labhyas tv ananyaya
yena sarvam idam tatam
purusah -- the Supreme ; sah -- He; parah -- the Supreme, than whom no one is greater; partha -- O son of Prtha; bhaktya -- by devotional service; labhyah -- can be achieved; tu -- but; ananyaya -- unalloyed, undeviating; yasya -- whom; antah-sthani -- within; bhutani -- all of this material manifestation; yena -- by whom; sarvam -- all; idam -- whatever we can see; tatam -- is pervaded.
The Supreme, who is greater than all, can be reached by unalloyed fixed devotion. He is all-pervading, and situated within all material manifestation, whatever we can see.
avrttim caiva yoginah
prayata yanti tam kalam
yatra -- at which; kale -- time; tu -- and; anavrttim -- no return; avrttim -- return; ca -- also; eva -- certainly; yoginah -- different kinds of mystics; prayatah -- having departed; yanti -- attain; tam -- that; kalam -- time; vaksyami -- I shall describe; bharata-rsabha -- O best of the Bharatas.
O best of the Bharatas, I shall now explain to you the different times at which, passing away from this world, the mystic yogi does or does not come back.
san masa uttarayanam
tatra prayata gacchanti
brahma brahma-vido janah
agnih -- fire; jyotih -- light; ahah -- day; suklah -- the white fortnight; sat-masah -- the six months; uttara-ayanam -- when the sun passes on the northern side; tatra -- there; prayatah -- those who pass away; gacchanti -- go; brahma -- to the Absolute; brahma-vidah -- who know the Absolute; janah -- persons.
Those who know the Supreme Brahman attain that Supreme by passing away from the world during the influence of the fiery god, in the light, at an auspicious moment of the day, during the fortnight of the waxing moon, or during the six months when the sun travels in the north.
tatra candramasam jyotir
yogi prapya nivartate
dhumah -- smoke; ratrih -- night; tatha -- also; krsnah -- the fortnight of the dark moon; sat-masah -- the six months; daksina-ayanam -- when the sun passes on the southern side; tatra -- there; candramasam -- the moon planet; jyotih -- the light; yogi -- the mystic; prapya -- achieving; nivartate -- comes back.
The mystic who passes away from this world during the smoke, the night, the fortnight of the waning moon, or the six months when the sun passes to the south reaches the moon planet but again comes back.
jagatah sasvate mate
ekaya yaty anavrttim
sukla -- light; krsne -- and darkness; gati -- ways of passing; hi -- certainly; ete -- these two; jagatah -- of the material world; sasvate -- of the Vedas; mate -- in the opinion; ekaya -- by one; yati -- goes; anavrttim -- to no return; anyaya -- by the other; avartate -- comes back; punah -- again.
According to Vedic opinion, there are two ways of passing from this world -- one in light and one in darkness. When one passes in light, he does not come back; but when one passes in darkness, he returns.
yogi muhyati kascana
tasmat sarvesu kalesu
na -- never; ete -- these two; srti -- different paths; partha -- O son of Prtha; janan -- even if he knows; yogi -- the devotee of the Lord; muhyati -- is bewildered; kascana -- any; tasmat -- therefore; sarvesu kalesu -- always; yoga-yuktah -- engaged in mysticism; bhava- just become; arjuna -- O Arjuna.
Although the mystic know these two paths, O Arjuna, they are never bewildered. Therefore be always fixed in mystic devotion.
danesu yat punya-phalam pradistam
atyeti tat sarvam idam viditva
yogi param sthanam upaiti cadyam
vedesu -- in the study of the Vedas; yajnesu -- in the performances of yajna, sacrifice; tapahsu -- in undergoing different types of austerities; ca -- also; eva -- certainly; danesu -- in giving charities; yat -- that which; punya-phalam -- result of pious work; pradistam -- indicated; atyeti -- surpasses; tat sarvam -- all those; idam -- this; viditva -- knowing; yogi -- the devotee; param -- supreme; sthanam -- abode; upaiti -- achieves; ca -- also; adyam -- original.
A person who accepts the path of devotional service is not bereft of the results derived from studying the Vedas, performing austere sacrifices, giving charity or pursuing philosophical and fruitive activities. Simply by performing devotional service, he attains all these, and at the end he reaches the supreme eternal abode.