CHAPTER 2: Summary of the teachings
©2001, TheBhagavatGita.com



Text: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42-43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72

 

 



TEXT 1

sanjaya uvaca
tam tatha krpayavistam
asru-purnakuleksanam
visidantam idam vakyam
uvaca madhusudanah

WORD FOR WORD

sanjayah uvaca -- Sanjaya said; tam -- unto Arjuna; tatha -- thus; krpaya -- by compassion; avistam -- overwhelmed; asru-purna-akula -- full of tears; iksanam -- eyes; visidantam -- lamenting; idam -- these; vakyam -- words; uvaca -- said; madhu-sudanah -- the killer of Madhu.

TRANSLATION

Sanjaya said: Seeing Arjuna full of compassion, his mind depressed, his eyes full of tears, Madhusudana, Krishna, spoke the following words.

 



TEXT 2

sri-bhagavan uvaca
kutas tva kasmalam idam
visame samupasthitam
anarya-justam asvargyam
akirti-karam arjuna

WORD FOR WORD

sri-bhagavan uvaca -- the Supreme said; kutah -- wherefrom; tva -- unto you; kasmalam -- dirtiness; idam -- this lamentation; visame -- in this hour of crisis; samupasthitam -- arrived; anarya -- persons who do not know the value of life; justam -- practiced by; asvargyam -- which does not lead to higher planets; akirti -- infamy; karam -- the cause of; arjuna -- O Arjuna.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme said: My dear Arjuna, how have these impurities come upon you? They are not at all befitting a man who knows the value of life. They lead not to higher planets but to infamy.

 



TEXT 3

klaibyam ma sma gamah partha
naitat tvayy upapadyate
ksudram hrdaya-daurbalyam
tyaktvottistha parantapa

WORD FOR WORD

klaibyam -- impotence; ma sma -- do not; gamah -- take to; partha -- O son of Prtha; na -- never; etat -- this; tvayi -- unto you; upadyate -- is befitting; ksudram -- petty; hrdaya -- of the heart; daurbalyam -- weakness; tyaktva -- giving up; uttistha -- get up; param-tapa -- O chastiser of the enemies.

TRANSLATION

O son of Prtha, do not yield to this degrading impotence. It does not become you. Give up such petty weakness of heart and arise, O chastiser of the enemy.

 



TEXT 4

arjuna uvaca
katham bhismam aham sankhye
dronam ca madhusudana
isubhih pratiyotsyami
pujarhav ari-sudana

WORD FOR WORD

arjunah uvaca -- Arjuna said; katham -- how; bhismam -- Bhisma; aham -- I; sankhye -- in the fight; dronam -- Drona; ca -- also; madhu-sudana -- O killer of Madhu; isubhih -- with arrows; pratiyotsyami -- shall counterattack; puja-arhau -- those who are worshipable; ari-sudana -- O killer of the enemies.

TRANSLATION

Arjuna said: O killer of enemies, O killer of Madhu, how can I counterattack with arrows in battle men like Bhisma and Drona, who are worthy of my worship?

 



TEXT 5

gurun ahatva hi mahanubhavan
sreyo bhoktum bhaiksyam apiha loke
hatvartha-kamams tu gurun ihaiva
bhunjiya bhogan rudhira-pradigdhan

WORD FOR WORD

gurun -- the superiors; ahatva -- not killing; hi -- certainly; maha-anubhavan -- great souls; sreyah -- it is better; bhoktum -- to enjoy life; bhaiksyam -- by begging; api -- even; iha -- in this life; loke -- in this world; hatva -- killing; artha -- gain; kaman -- desiring; tu -- but; gurun -- superiors; iha -- in this world; eva -- certainly; bhunjiya -- one has to enjoy; bhogan -- enjoyable things; rudhira -- blood; pradigdhan -- tainted with.

TRANSLATION

It would be better to live in this world by begging than to live at the cost of the lives of great souls who are my teachers. Even though desiring worldly gain, they are superiors. If they are killed, everything we enjoy will be tainted with blood.

 



TEXT 6

na caitad vidmah kataran no gariyo
yad va jayema yadi va no jayeyuh
yan eva hatva na jijivisamas
te 'vasthitah pramukhe dhartarastrah

WORD FOR WORD

na -- nor; ca -- also; etat -- this; vidmah -- do we know; katarat -- which; nah -- for us; gariyah -- better; yat va -- whether; jayema -- we may conquer; yadi -- if; va -- or; nah -- us; jayeyuh -- they conquer; yan -- those who; eva -- certainly; hatva -- by killing; na -- never; jijivisamah -- we would want to live; te -- all of them; avasthitah -- are situated; pramukhe -- in the front; dhartarastrah -- the sons of Dhrtarastra.

TRANSLATION

Nor do we know which is better -- conquering them or being conquered by them. If we killed the sons of Dhrtarastra, we should not care to live. Yet they are now standing before us on the battlefield.

 



TEXT 7

karpanya-dosopahata-svabhavah
prcchami tvam dharma-sammudha-cetah
yac chreyah syan niscitam bruhi tan me
sisyas te 'ham sadhi mam tvam prapannam

WORD FOR WORD

karpanya -- of miserliness; dosa -- by the weakness; upahata -- being afflicted; sva-bhavah -- characteristics; prcchami -- I am asking; tvam -- unto You; dharma -- religion; sammudha -- bewildered; cetah -- in heart; yat -- what; sreyah -- all-good; syat -- may be; niscitam -- confidently; bruhi -- tell; tat -- that; me -- unto me; sisyah -- disciple; te -- Your; aham -- I am; sadhi -- just instruct; mam -- me; tvam -- unto You; prapannam -- surrendered.

TRANSLATION

Now I am confused about my duty and have lost all composure because of miserly weakness. In this condition I am asking You to tell me for certain what is best for me. Now I am Your disciple, and a soul surrendered unto You. Please instruct me.

 



TEXT 8

na hi prapasyami mamapanudyad
yac chokam ucchosanam indriyanam
avapya bhumav asapatnam rddham
rajyam suranam api cadhipatyam

WORD FOR WORD

na -- do not; hi -- certainly; prapasyami -- I see; mama -- my; apanudyat -- can drive away; yat -- that which; sokam -- lamentation; ucchosanam -- drying up; indriyanam -- of the senses; avapya -- achieving; bhumau -- on the earth; asapatnam -- without rival; rddham -- prosperous; rajyam -- kingdom; suranam -- of the demigods; api -- even; ca -- also; adhipatyam -- supremacy.

TRANSLATION

I can find no means to drive away this grief which is drying up my senses. I will not be able to dispel it even if I win a prosperous, unrivaled kingdom on earth with sovereignty like the demigods in heaven.

 



TEXT 9

sanjaya uvaca
evam uktva hrsikesam
gudakesah parantapah
na yotsya iti govindam
uktva tusnim babhuva ha

WORD FOR WORD

sanjayah uvaca -- Sanjaya said; evam -- thus; uktva -- speaking; hrsikesam -- unto Krishna, the master of the senses; gudakesah -- Arjuna, the master of curbing ignorance; parantapah -- the chastiser of the enemies; na yotsye -- I shall not fight; iti -- thus; govindam -- unto Krishna, the giver of pleasure to the senses; uktva -- saying; tusnim -- silent; babhuva -- became; ha -- certainly.

TRANSLATION

Sanjaya said: Having spoken thus, Arjuna, chastiser of enemies, told Krishna, "Govinda, I shall not fight," and fell silent.

 



TEXT 10

tam uvaca hrsikesah
prahasann iva bharata
senayor ubhayor madhye
visidantam idam vacah

WORD FOR WORD

tam -- unto him; uvaca -- said; hrsikesah -- the master of the senses, Krishna; prahasan -- smiling; iva -- like that; bharata -- O Dhrtarastra, descendant of Bharata; senayoh -- of the armies; ubhayoh -- of both parties; madhye -- between; visidantam -- unto the lamenting one; idam -- the following; vacah -- words.

TRANSLATION

O descendant of Bharata, at that time Krishna, smiling, in the midst of both the armies, spoke the following words to the grief-stricken Arjuna.

 



TEXT 11

sri-bhagavan uvaca
asocyan anvasocas tvam
prajna-vadams ca bhasase
gatasun agatasums ca
nanusocanti panditah

WORD FOR WORD

sri-bhagavan uvaca -- the Supreme said; asocyan -- not worthy of lamentation; anvasocah -- you are lamenting; tvam -- you; prajna-vadan -- learned talks; ca -- also; bhasase -- speaking; gata -- lost; asun -- life; agata -- not past; asun -- life; ca -- also; na -- never; anusocanti -- lament; panditah -- the learned.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme said: While speaking learned words, you are mourning for what is not worthy of grief. Those who are wise lament neither for the living nor for the dead.

 



TEXT 12

na tv evaham jatu nasam
na tvam neme janadhipah
na caiva na bhavisyamah
sarve vayam atah param

WORD FOR WORD

na -- never; tu -- but; eva -- certainly; aham -- I; jatu -- at any time; na -- did not; asam -- exist; na -- not; tvam -- you; na -- not; ime -- all these; jana-adhipah -- kings; na -- never; ca -- also; eva -- certainly; na -- not; bhavisyamah -- shall exist; sarve vayam -- all of us; atah param -- hereafter.

TRANSLATION

Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.

 



TEXT 13

dehino 'smin yatha dehe
kaumaram yauvanam jara
tatha dehantara-praptir
dhiras tatra na muhyati

WORD FOR WORD

dehinah -- of the embodied; asmin -- in this; yatha -- as; dehe -- in the body; kaumaram -- boyhood; yauvanam -- youth; jara -- old age; tatha -- similarly; deha-antara -- of transference of the body; praptih -- achievement; dhirah -- the sober; tatra -- thereupon; na -- never; muhyati -- is deluded.

TRANSLATION

As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A sober person is not bewildered by such a change.

 



TEXT 14

matra-sparsas tu kaunteya
sitosna-sukha-duhkha-dah
agamapayino 'nityas
tams titiksasva bharata

WORD FOR WORD

matra-sparsah -- sensory perception; tu -- only; kaunteya -- O son of Kunti; sita -- winter; usna -- summer; sukha -- happiness; duhkha -- and pain; dah -- giving; agama -- appearing; apayinah -- disappearing; anityah -- nonpermanent; tan -- all of them; titiksasva -- just try to tolerate; bharata -- O descendant of the Bharata dynasty.

TRANSLATION

O son of Kunti, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed.

 



TEXT 15

yam hi na vyathayanty ete
purusam purusarsabha
sama-duhkha-sukham dhiram
so 'mrtatvaya kalpate

WORD FOR WORD

yam -- one to whom; hi -- certainly; na -- never; vyathayanti -- are distressing; ete -- all these; purusam -- to a person; purusa-rsabha -- O best among men; sama -- unaltered; duhkha -- in distress; sukham -- and happiness; dhiram -- patient; sah -- he; amrtatvaya -- for liberation; kalpate -- is considered eligible.

TRANSLATION

O best among men [Arjuna], the person who is not disturbed by happiness and distress and is steady in both is certainly eligible for liberation.

 



TEXT 16

nasato vidyate bhavo
nabhavo vidyate satah
ubhayor api drsto 'ntas
tv anayos tattva-darsibhih

WORD FOR WORD

na -- never; asatah -- of the nonexistent; vidyate -- there is; bhavah -- endurance; na -- never; abhavah -- changing quality; vidyate -- there is; satah -- of the eternal; ubhayoh -- of the two; api -- verily; drstah -- observed; antah -- conclusion; tu -- indeed; anayoh -- of them; tattva -- of the truth; darsibhih -- by the seers.

TRANSLATION

Those who are seers of the truth have concluded that of the nonexistent [the material body] there is no endurance and of the eternal [the soul] there is no change. This they have concluded by studying the nature of both.

 



TEXT 17

avinasi tu tad viddhi
yena sarvam idam tatam
vinasam avyayasyasya
na kascit kartum arhati

WORD FOR WORD

avinasi -- imperishable; tu -- but; tat -- that; viddhi -- know it; yena -- by whom; sarvam -- all of the body; idam -- this; tatam -- pervaded; vinasam -- destruction; avyayasya -- of the imperishable; asya -- of it; na kascit -- no one; kartum -- to do; arhati -- is able.

TRANSLATION

That which pervades the entire body you should know to be indestructible. No one is able to destroy that imperishable soul.

 



TEXT 18

antavanta ime deha
nityasyoktah saririnah
anasino prameyasya
tasmad yudhyasva bharata

WORD FOR WORD

anta-vantah -- perishable; ime -- all these; dehah -- material bodies; nityasya -- eternal in existence; uktah -- are said; saririnah -- of the embodied soul; anasinah -- never to be destroyed; aprameyasya -- immeasurable; tasmat -- therefore; yudhyasva -- fight; bharata -- O descendant of Bharata.

TRANSLATION

The material body of the indestructible, immeasurable and eternal living entity is sure to come to an end; therefore, fight, O descendant of Bharata.

 



TEXT 19

ya enam vetti hantaram
yas cainam manyate hatam
ubhau tau na vijanito
nayam hanti na hanyate

WORD FOR WORD

yah -- anyone who; enam -- this; vetti -- knows; hantaram -- the killer; yah -- anyone who; ca -- also; enam -- this; manyate -- thinks; hatam -- killed; ubhau -- both; tau -- they; na -- never; vijanitah -- are in knowledge; na -- never; ayam -- this; hanti -- kills; na -- nor; hanyate -- is killed.

TRANSLATION

Neither he who thinks the living entity the slayer nor he who thinks it slain is in knowledge, for the self slays not nor is slain.

 



TEXT 20

na jayate mriyate va kadacin
nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah
ajo nityah sasvato 'yam purano
na hanyate hanyamane sarire

WORD FOR WORD

na -- never; jayate -- takes birth; mriyate -- dies; va -- either; kadacit -- at any time (past, present or future); na -- never; ayam -- this; bhutva -- having come into being; bhavita -- will come to be; va -- or; na -- not; bhuyah -- or is again coming to be; ajah -- unborn; nityah -- eternal; sasvatah -- permanent; ayam -- this; puranah -- the oldest; na -- never; hanyate -- is killed; hanyamane -- being killed; sarire -- the body.

TRANSLATION

For the soul there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.

 



TEXT 21

vedavinasinam nityam
ya enam ajam avyayam
katham sa purusah partha
kam ghatayati hanti kam

WORD FOR WORD

veda -- knows; avinasinam -- indestructible; nityam -- always existing; yah -- one who; enam -- this (soul); ajam -- unborn; avyayam -- immutable; katham -- how; sah -- that; purusah -- person; partha -- O Partha (Arjuna); kam -- whom; ghatayati -- causes to hurt; hanti -- kills; kam -- whom.

TRANSLATION

O Partha, how can a person who knows that the soul is indestructible, eternal, unborn and immutable kill anyone or cause anyone to kill?

 



TEXT 22

vasamsi jirnani yatha vihaya
navani grhnati naro 'parani
tatha sarirani vihaya jirnany
anyani samyati navani dehi

WORD FOR WORD

vasamsi -- garments; jirnani -- old and worn out; yatha -- just as; vihaya -- giving up; navani -- new garments; grhnati -- does accept; narah -- a man; aparani -- others; tatha -- in the same way; sarirani -- bodies; vihaya -- giving up; jirnani -- old and useless; anyani -- different; samyati -- verily accepts; navani -- new sets; dehi -- the embodied.

TRANSLATION

As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul similarly accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones.

 



TEXT 23

nainam chindanti sastrani
nainam dahati pavakah
na cainam kledayanty apo
na sosayati marutah

WORD FOR WORD

na -- never; enam -- this soul; chindanti -- can cut to pieces; sastrani -- weapons; na -- never; enam -- this soul; dahati -- burns; pavakah -- fire; na -- never; ca -- also; enam -- this soul; kledayanti -- moistens; apah -- water; na -- never; sosayati -- dries; marutah -- wind.

TRANSLATION

The soul can never be cut to pieces by any weapon, nor burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind.

 



TEXT 24

acchedyo 'yam adahyo 'yam
akledyo 'sosya eva ca
nityah sarva-gatah sthanur
acalo 'yam sanatanah

WORD FOR WORD

acchedyah -- unbreakable; ayam -- this soul; adahyah -- unable to be burned; ayam -- this soul; akledyah -- insoluble; asosyah -- not able to be dried; eva -- certainly; ca -- and; nityah -- everlasting; sarva-gatah -- all-pervading; sthanuh -- unchangeable; acalah -- immovable; ayam -- this soul; sanatanah -- eternally the same.

TRANSLATION

This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be neither burned nor dried. He is everlasting, present everywhere, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.

 



TEXT 25

avyakto 'yam acintyo 'yam
avikaryo 'yam ucyate
tasmad evam viditvainam
nanusocitum arhasi

WORD FOR WORD

avyaktah -- invisible; ayam -- this soul; acintyah -- inconceivable; ayam -- this soul; avikaryah -- unchangeable; ayam -- this soul; ucyate -- is said; tasmat -- therefore; evam -- like this; viditva -- knowing it well; enam -- this soul; na -- do not; anusocitum -- to lament; arhasi -- you deserve.

TRANSLATION

It is said that the soul is invisible, inconceivable and immutable. Knowing this, you should not grieve for the body.

 



TEXT 26

atha cainam nitya-jatam
nityam va manyase mrtam
tathapi tvam maha-baho
nainam socitum arhasi

WORD FOR WORD

atha -- if, however; ca -- also; enam -- this soul; nitya-jatam -- always born; nityam -- forever; va -- either; manyase -- you so think; mrtam -- dead; tatha api -- still; tvam -- you; maha-baho -- O mighty-armed one; na -- never; enam -- about the soul; socitum -- to lament; arhasi -- deserve.

TRANSLATION

If, however, you think that the soul [or the symptoms of life] is always born and dies forever, you still have no reason to lament, O mighty-armed.

 



TEXT 27

jatasya hi dhruvo mrtyur
dhruvam janma mrtasya ca
tasmad apariharye 'rthe
na tvam socitum arhasi

WORD FOR WORD

jatasya -- of one who has taken his birth; hi -- certainly; dhruvah -- a fact; mrtyuh -- death; dhruvam -- it is also a fact; janma -- birth; mrtasya -- of the dead; ca -- also; tasmat -- therefore; apariharye -- of that which is unavoidable; arthe -- in the matter; na -- do not; tvam -- you; socitum -- to lament; arhasi -- deserve.

TRANSLATION

One who has taken his birth is sure to die, and after death one is sure to take birth again. Therefore, in the unavoidable discharge of your duty, you should not lament.

 



TEXT 28

avyaktadini bhutani
vyakta-madhyani bharata
avyakta-nidhanany eva
tatra ka paridevana

WORD FOR WORD

avyakta-adini -- in the beginning unmanifested; bhutani -- all that are created; vyakta -- manifested; madhyani -- in the middle; bharata -- O descendant of Bharata; avyakta -- nonmanifested; nidhanani -- when vanquished; eva -- it is all like that; tatra -- therefore; ka -- what; paridevana -- lamentation.

TRANSLATION

All created beings are unmanifest in their beginning, manifest in their interim state, and unmanifest again when annihilated. So what need is there for lamentation?

 



TEXT 29

ascarya-vat pasyati kascid enam
ascarya-vad vadati tathaiva canyah.
ascarya-vac cainam anyah srnoti
srutvapy enam veda na caiva kascit

WORD FOR WORD

ascarya-vat -- as amazing; pasyati -- sees; kascit -- someone; enam -- this soul; ascarya-vat -- as amazing; vadati -- speaks of; tatha -- thus; eva -- certainly; ca -- also; anyah -- another; ascarya-vat -- similarly amazing; ca -- also; enam -- this soul; anyah -- another; srnoti -- hears of; srutva -- having heard; api -- even; enam -- this soul; veda -- knows; na -- never; ca -- and; eva -- certainly; kascit -- someone.

TRANSLATION

Some look on the soul as amazing, some describe him as amazing, and some hear of him as amazing, while others, even after hearing about him, cannot understand him at all.

 



TEXT 30

dehi nityam avadhyo 'yam
dehe sarvasya bharata
tasmat sarvani bhutani
na tvam socitum arhasi

WORD FOR WORD

dehi -- the owner of the material body; nityam -- eternally; avadhyah -- cannot be killed; ayam -- this soul; dehe -- in the body; sarvasya -- of everyone; bharata -- O descendant of Bharata; tasmat -- therefore; sarvani -- all; bhutani -- living entities (that are born); na -- never; tvam -- you; socitum -- to lament; arhasi -- deserve.

TRANSLATION

O descendant of Bharata, he who dwells in the body can never be slain. Therefore you need not grieve for any living being.

 



TEXT 31

sva-dharmam api caveksya
na vikampitum arhasi
dharmyad dhi yuddhac chreyo 'nyat
ksatriyasya na vidyate

WORD FOR WORD

sva-dharmam -- one's own religious principles; api -- also; ca -- indeed; aveksya -- considering; na -- never; vikampitum -- to hesitate; arhasi -- you deserve; dharmyat -- for religious principles; hi -- indeed; yuddhat -- than fighting; sreyah -- better engagement; anyat -- any other; ksatriyasya -- of the ksatriya; na -- does not; vidyate -- exist.

TRANSLATION

Considering your specific duty as a ksatriya, you should know that there is no better engagement for you than fighting on religious principles; and so there is no need for hesitation.

 



TEXT 32

yadrcchaya copapannam
svarga-dvaram apavrtam
sukhinah ksatriyah partha
labhante yuddham idrsam

WORD FOR WORD

yadrcchaya -- by its own accord; ca -- also; upapannam -- arrived at; svarga -- of the heavenly planets; dvaram -- door; apavrtam -- wide open; sukhinah -- very happy; ksatriyah -- the members of the royal order; partha -- O son of Prtha; labhante -- do achieve; yuddham -- war; idrsam -- like this.

TRANSLATION

O Partha, happy are the ksatriyas to whom such fighting opportunities come unsought, opening for them the doors of the heavenly planets.

 


TEXT 33

atha cet tvam imam dharmyam
sangramam na karisyasi
tatah sva-dharmam kirtim ca
hitva papam avapsyasi

WORD FOR WORD

atha -- therefore; cet -- if; tvam -- you; imam -- this; dharmyam -- as a religious duty; sangramam -- fighting; na -- do not; karisyasi -- perform; tatah -- then; sva-dharmam -- your religious duty; kirtim -- reputation; ca -- also; hitva -- losing; papam -- sinful reaction; avapsyasi -- will gain.

TRANSLATION

If, however, you do not perform your religious duty of fighting, then you will certainly incur sins for neglecting your duties and thus lose your reputation as a fighter.



TEXT 34

akirtim capi bhutani
kathayisyanti te 'vyayam
sambhavitasya cakirtir
maranad atiricyate

WORD FOR WORD

akirtim -- infamy; ca -- also; api -- over and above; bhutani -- all people; kathayisyanti -- will speak; te -- of you; avyayam -- forever; sambhavitasya -- for a respectable man; ca -- also; akirtih -- ill fame; maranat -- than death; atiricyate -- becomes more.

TRANSLATION

People will always speak of your infamy, and for a respectable person, dishonor is worse than death.



TEXT 35

bhayad ranad uparatam
mamsyante tvam maha-rathah
yesam ca tvam bahu-mato
bhutva yasyasi laghavam

WORD FOR WORD

bhayat -- out of fear; ranat -- from the battlefield; uparatam -- ceased; mamsyante -- they will consider; tvam -- you; maha-rathah -- the great generals; yesam -- for whom; ca -- also; tvam -- you; bahu-matah -- in great estimation; bhutva -- having been; yasyasi -- you will go; laghavam -- decreased in value.

TRANSLATION

The great generals who have highly esteemed your name and fame will think that you have left the battlefield out of fear only, and thus they will consider you insignificant.



TEXT 36

avacya-vadams ca bahun
vadisyanti tavahitah
nindantas tava samarthyam
tato duhkhataram nu kim

WORD FOR WORD

avacya -- unkind; vadan -- fabricated words; ca -- also; bahun -- many; vadisyanti -- will say; tava -- your; ahitah -- enemies; nindantah -- while vilifying; tava -- your; samarthyam -- ability; tatah -- than that; duhkha-taram -- more painful; nu -- of course; kim -- what is there.

TRANSLATION

Your enemies will describe you in many unkind words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful for you?



TEXT 37

hato va prapsyasi svargam
jitva va bhoksyase mahim
tasmad uttistha kaunteya
yuddhaya krta-niscayah

WORD FOR WORD

hatah -- being killed; va -- either; prapsyasi -- you gain; svargam -- the heavenly kingdom; jitva -- by conquering; va -- or; bhoksyase -- you enjoy; mahim -- the world; tasmat -- therefore; uttistha -- get up; kaunteya -- O son of Kunti; yuddhaya -- to fight; krta -- determined; niscayah -- in certainty.

TRANSLATION

O son of Kunti, either you will be killed on the battlefield and attain the heavenly planets, or you will conquer and enjoy the earthly kingdom. Therefore, get up with determination and fight.



TEXT 38

sukha-duhkhe same krtva
labhalabhau jayajayau
tato yuddhaya yujyasva
naivam papam avapsyasi

WORD FOR WORD

sukha -- happiness; duhkhe -- and distress; same -- in equanimity; krtva -- doing so; labha-alabhau -- both profit and loss; jaya-ajayau -- both victory and defeat; tatah -- thereafter; yuddhaya -- for the sake of fighting; yujyasva -- engage (fight); na -- never; evam -- in this way; papam -- sinful reaction; avapsyasi -- you will gain.

TRANSLATION

Do thou fight for the sake of fighting, without considering happiness or distress, loss or gain, victory or defeat -- and by so doing you shall never incur sin.



TEXT 39

esa te 'bhihita sankhye
buddhir yoge tv imam srnu
buddhya yukto yaya partha
karma-bandham prahasyasi

WORD FOR WORD

esa -- all this; te -- unto you; abhihita -- described; sankhye -- by analytical study; buddhih -- intelligence; yoge -- in work without fruitive result; tu -- but; imam -- this; srnu- just hear; buddhya -- by intelligence; yuktah -- dovetailed; yaya -- by which; partha -- O son of Prtha; karma-bandham -- bondage of reaction; prahasyasi -- you can be released from.

TRANSLATION

Thus far I have described this knowledge to you through analytical study. Now listen as I explain it in terms of working without fruitive results. O son of Prtha, when you act in such knowledge you can free yourself from the bondage of works.



TEXT 40

nehabhikrama-naso 'sti
pratyavayo na vidyate
sv-alpam apy asya dharmasya
trayate mahato bhayat

WORD FOR WORD

na -- there is not; iha -- in this yoga; abhikrama -- in endeavoring; nasah -- loss; asti -- there is; pratyavayah -- diminution; na -- never; vidyate -- there is; su-alpam -- a little; api -- although; asya -- of this; dharmasya -- occupation; trayate -- releases; mahatah -- from very great; bhayat -- danger.

TRANSLATION

In this endeavor there is no loss or diminution, and a little advancement on this path can protect one from the most dangerous type of fear.



TEXT 41

vyavasayatmika buddhir
ekeha kuru-nandana
bahu-sakha hy anantas ca
buddhayo 'vyavasayinam

WORD FOR WORD

vyavasaya-atmika -- resolute in Krishna consciousness; buddhih -- intelligence; eka -- only one; iha -- in this world; kuru-nandana -- O beloved child of the Kurus; bahu-sakhah -- having various branches; hi -- indeed; anantah -- unlimited; ca -- also; buddhayah -- intelligence; avyavasayinam -- of those who are not in Krishna consciousness.

TRANSLATION

Those who are on this path are resolute in purpose, and their aim is one. O beloved child of the Kurus, the intelligence of those who are irresolute is many-branched.

 



TEXTS 42-43

yam imam puspitam vacam
pravadanty avipascitah
veda-vada-ratah partha
nanyad astiti vadinah

kamatmanah svarga-para
janma-karma-phala-pradam
kriya-visesa-bahulam
bhogaisvarya-gatim prati

WORD FOR WORD

yam imam -- all these; puspitam -- flowery; vacam -- words; pravadanti -- say; avipascitah -- men with a poor fund of knowledge; veda-vada-ratah -- supposed followers of the Vedas; partha -- O son of Prtha; na -- never; anyat -- anything else; asti -- there is; iti -- thus; vadinah -- the advocates; kama-atmanah -- desirous of sense gratification; svarga-parah -- aiming to achieve heavenly planets; janma-karma-phala-pradam -- resulting in good birth and other fruitive reactions; kriya-visesa -- pompous ceremonies; bahulam -- various; bhoga -- in sense enjoyment; aisvarya -- and opulence; gatim -- progress; prati -- towards.

TRANSLATION

Men of small knowledge are very much attached to the flowery words of the Vedas, which recommend various fruitive activities for elevation to heavenly planets, resultant good birth, power, and so forth. Being desirous of sense gratification and opulent life, they say that there is nothing more than this.

 



TEXT 44

bhogaisvarya-prasaktanam
ta yapahrta-cetasam
vyavasayatmika buddhih
samadhau na vidhiyate

WORD FOR WORD

bhoga -- to material enjoyment; aisvarya -- and opulence; prasaktanam -- for those who are attached; taya -- by such things; apahrta-cetasam -- bewildered in mind; vyavasaya-atmika -- fixed in determination; buddhih -- devotional service to the Lord; samadhau -- in the controlled mind; na -- never; vidhiyate -- does take place.

TRANSLATION

In the minds of those who are too attached to sense enjoyment and material opulence, and who are bewildered by such things, the resolute determination for devotional service to the Supreme Lord does not take place.

 



TEXT 45

trai-gunya-visaya veda
nistrai-gunyo bhavarjuna
nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho
niryoga-ksema atmavan

WORD FOR WORD

trai-gunya -- pertaining to the three modes of material nature; visayah -- on the subject matter; vedah -- Vedic literatures; nistrai-gunyah -- transcendental to the three modes of material nature; bhava -- be; arjuna -- O Arjuna; nirdvandvah -- without duality; nitya-sattva-sthah -- in a pure state of spiritual existence; niryoga-ksemah -- free from ideas of gain and protection; atma-van -- established in the self.

TRANSLATION

The Vedas deal mainly with the subject of the three modes of material nature. O Arjuna, become transcendental to these three modes. Be free from all dualities and from all anxieties for gain and safety, and be established in the self.

 



TEXT 46

yavan artha udapane
sarvatah samplutodake
tavan sarvesu vedesu
brahmanasya vijanatah

WORD FOR WORD

yavan -- all that; arthah -- is meant; uda-pane -- in a well of water; sarvatah -- in all respects; sampluta-udake -- in a great reservoir of water; tavan -- similarly; sarvesu -- in all; vedesu -- Vedic literatures; brahmanasya -- of the man who knows the Supreme Brahman; vijanatah -- who is in complete knowledge.

TRANSLATION

All purposes served by a small well can at once be served by a great reservoir of water. Similarly, all the purposes of the Vedas can be served to one who knows the purpose behind them.

 



TEXT 47

karmany evadhikaras te
ma phalesu kadacana
ma karma-phala-hetur bhur
ma te sango 'stv akarmani

WORD FOR WORD

karmani -- in prescribed duties; eva -- certainly; adhikarah -- right; te -- of you; ma -- never; phalesu -- in the fruits; kadacana -- at any time; ma -- never; karma-phala -- in the result of the work; hetuh -- cause; bhuh -- become; ma -- never; te -- of you; sangah -- attachment; astu -- there should be; akarmani -- in not doing prescribed duties.

TRANSLATION

You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing your duty.

 



TEXT 48

yoga-sthah kuru karmani
sangam tyaktva dhananjaya
siddhy-asiddhyoh samo bhutva
samatvam yoga ucyate

WORD FOR WORD

yoga-sthah -- equipoised; kuru -- perform; karmani -- your duties; sangam -- attachment; tyaktva -- giving up; dhananjaya -- O Arjuna; siddhi-asiddhyoh -- in success and failure; samah -- equipoised; bhutva -- becoming; samatvam -- equanimity; yogah -- yoga; ucyate -- is called.

TRANSLATION

Perform your duty equipoised, O Arjuna, abandoning all attachment to success or failure. Such equanimity is called yoga.

 



TEXT 49

durena hy avaram karma
buddhi-yogad dhananjaya
buddhau saranam anviccha
krpanah phala-hetavah

WORD FOR WORD

durena -- discard it at a long distance; hi -- certainly; avaram -- abominable; karma -- activity; buddhi-yogat -- on the strength of Krishna consciousness; dhananjaya -- O conqueror of wealth; buddhau -- in such consciousness; saranam -- full surrender; anviccha -- try for; krpanah -- misers; phala-hetavah -- those desiring fruitive results.

TRANSLATION

O Dhananjaya, keep all abominable activities far distant by devotional service, and in that consciousness surrender unto the Lord. Those who want to enjoy the fruits of their work are misers.

 



TEXT 50

buddhi-yukto jahatiha
ubhe sukrta-duskrte
tasmad yogaya yujyasva
yogah karmasu kausalam

WORD FOR WORD

buddhi-yuktah -- one who is engaged in devotional service; jahati -- can get rid of; iha -- in this life; ubhe -- both; sukrta-duskrte -- good and bad results; tasmat -- therefore; yogaya -- for the sake of devotional service; yujyasva -- be so engaged; yogah -- Krishna consciousness; karmasu -- in all activities; kausalam -- art.

TRANSLATION

A man engaged in devotional service rids himself of both good and bad actions even in this life. Therefore strive for yoga, which is the art of all work.

 



TEXT 51

karma-jam buddhi-yukta hi
phalam tyaktva manisinah
janma-bandha-vinirmuktah
padam gacchanty anamayam

WORD FOR WORD

karma-jam -- due to fruitive activities; buddhi-yuktah -- being engaged in devotional service; hi -- certainly; phalam -- results; tyaktva -- giving up; manisinah -- great sages or devotees; janma-bandha -- from the bondage of birth and death; vinirmuktah -- liberated; padam -- position; gacchanti -- they reach; anamayam -- without miseries.

TRANSLATION

By thus engaging in devotional service to the Lord, great sages or devotees free themselves from the results of work in the material world. In this way they become free from the cycle of birth and death and attain the state beyond all miseries.

 



TEXT 52

yada te moha-kalilam
buddhir vyatitarisyati
tada gantasi nirvedam
srotavyasya srutasya ca

WORD FOR WORD

yada -- when; te -- your; moha -- of illusion; kalilam -- dense forest; buddhih -- transcendental service with intelligence; vyatitarisyati -- surpasses; tada -- at that time; ganta asi -- you shall go; nirvedam -- callousness; srotavyasya -- toward all that is to be heard; srutasya -- all that is already heard; ca -- also.

TRANSLATION

When your intelligence has passed out of the dense forest of delusion, you shall become indifferent to all that has been heard and all that is to be heard.

 



TEXT 53

sruti-vipratipanna te
yada sthasyati niscala
samadhav acala buddhis
tada yogam avapsyasi

WORD FOR WORD

sruti -- of Vedic revelation; vipratipanna -- without being influenced by the fruitive results; te -- your; yada -- when; sthasyati -- remains; niscala -- unmoved; samadhau -- in transcendental consciousness, or Krishna consciousness; acala -- unflinching; buddhih -- intelligence; tada -- at that time; yogam -- self-realization; avapsyasi -- you will achieve.

TRANSLATION

When your mind is no longer disturbed by the flowery language of the Vedas, and when it remains fixed in the trance of self-realization, then you will have attained the divine consciousness.

 



TEXT 54

arjuna uvaca
sthita-prajnasya ka bhasa
samadhi-sthasya kesava
sthita-dhih kim prabhaseta
kim asita vrajeta kim

WORD FOR WORD

arjunah uvaca -- Arjuna said; sthita-prajnasya -- of one who is constantly situated in God; ka -- what; bhasa -- language; samadhi-sthasya -- of one situated in trance; kesava -- O Krishna; sthita-dhih -- one fixed in Krishna consciousness; kim -- what; prabhaseta -- speaks; kim -- how; asita -- does remain still; vrajeta -- walks; kim -- how.

TRANSLATION

Arjuna said: O Krishna, what are the symptoms of one whose consciousness is thus merged in transcendence? How does he speak, and what is his language? How does he sit, and how does he walk?

 



TEXT 55

sri-bhagavan uvaca
prajahati yada kaman
sarvan partha mano-gatan
atmany evatmana tustah.
sthita-prajnas tadocyate

WORD FOR WORD

sri-bhagavan uvaca -- The Supreme said; prajahati -- gives up; yada -- when; kaman -- desires for sense gratification; sarvan -- of all varieties; partha -- O son of Prtha; manah-gatan -- of mental concoction; atmani -- in the pure state of the soul; eva -- certainly; atmana -- by the purified mind; tustah -- satisfied; sthita-prajnah -- transcendentally situated; tada -- at that time; ucyate -- is said.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme said: O Partha, when a man gives up all varieties of desire for sense gratification, which arise from mental concoction, and when his mind, thus purified, finds satisfaction in the self alone, then he is said to be in pure transcendental consciousness.

 



TEXT 56

duhkhesv anudvigna-manah
sukhesu vigata-sprhah
vita-raga-bhaya-krodhah
sthita-dhir munir ucyate

WORD FOR WORD

duhkhesu -- in the threefold miseries; anudvigna-manah -- without being agitated in mind; sukhesu -- in happiness; vigata-sprhah -- without being interested; vita -- free from; raga -- attachment; bhaya -- fear; krodhah -- and anger; sthita-dhih -- whose mind is steady; munih -- a sage; ucyate -- is called.

TRANSLATION

One who is not disturbed in mind even amidst the threefold miseries or elated when there is happiness, and who is free from attachment, fear and anger, is called a sage of steady mind.

 



TEXT 57

yah sarvatranabhisnehas
tat tat prapya subhasubham
nabhinandati na dvesti
tasya prajna pratisthita

WORD FOR WORD

yah -- one who; sarvatra -- everywhere; anabhisnehah -- without affection; tat -- that; tat -- that; prapya -- achieving; subha -- good; asubham -- evil; na -- never; abhinandati -- praises; na -- never; dvesti -- envies; tasya -- his; prajna -- perfect knowledge; pratisthita -- fixed.

TRANSLATION

In the material world, one who is unaffected by whatever good or evil he may obtain, neither praising it nor despising it, is firmly fixed in perfect knowledge.

 



TEXT 58

yada samharate cayam
kurmo 'nganiva sarvasah
indriyanindriyarthebhyas
tasya prajna pratisthita

WORD FOR WORD

yada -- when; samharate -- winds up; ca -- also; ayam -- he; kurmah -- tortoise; angani -- limbs; iva -- like; sarvasah -- altogether; indriyani -- senses; indriya-arthebhyah -- from the sense objects; tasya -- his; prajna -- consciousness; pratisthita -- fixed.

TRANSLATION

One who is able to withdraw his senses from sense objects, as the tortoise draws its limbs within the shell, is firmly fixed in perfect consciousness.

 



TEXT 59

visaya vinivartante
niraharasya dehinah
rasa-varjam raso 'py asya
param drstva nivartate

WORD FOR WORD

visayah -- objects for sense enjoyment; vinivartante -- are practiced to be refrained from; niraharasya -- by negative restrictions; dehinah -- for the embodied; rasa-varjam -- giving up the taste; rasah -- sense of enjoyment; api -- although there is; asya -- his; param -- far superior things; drstva -- by experiencing; nivartate -- he ceases from.

TRANSLATION

The embodied soul may be restricted from sense enjoyment, though the taste for sense objects remains. But, ceasing such engagements by experiencing a higher taste, he is fixed in consciousness.

 



TEXT 60

yatato hy api kaunteya
purusasya vipascitah
indriyani pramathini
haranti prasabham manah

WORD FOR WORD

yatatah -- while endeavoring; hi -- certainly; api -- in spite of; kaunteya -- O son of Kunti; purusasya -- of a man; vipascitah -- full of discriminating knowledge; indriyani -- the senses; pramathini -- agitating; haranti -- throw; prasabham -- by force; manah -- the mind.

TRANSLATION

The senses are so strong and impetuous, O Arjuna, that they forcibly carry away the mind even of a man of discrimination who is endeavoring to control them.

 



TEXT 61

tani sarvani samyamya
yukta asita mat-parah
vase hi yasyendriyani
tasya prajna pratisthita

WORD FOR WORD

tani -- those senses; sarvani -- all; samyamya -- keeping under control; yuktah -- engaged; asita -- should be situated; mat-parah -- in relationship with Me; vase -- in full subjugation; hi -- certainly; yasya -- one whose; indriyani -- senses; tasya -- his; prajna -- consciousness; pratisthita -- fixed.

TRANSLATION

One who restrains his senses, keeping them under full control, and fixes his consciousness upon Me, is known as a man of steady intelligence.

 



TEXT 62

dhyayato visayan pumsah
sangas tesupajayate
sangat sanjayate kamah
kamat krodho 'bhijayate

WORD FOR WORD

dhyayatah -- while contemplating; visayan -- sense objects; pumsah -- of a person; sangah -- attachment; tesu -- in the sense objects; upajayate -- develops; sangat -- from attachment; sanjayate -- develops; kamah -- desire; kamat -- from desire; krodhah -- anger; abhijayate -- becomes manifest.

TRANSLATION

While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises.

 



TEXT 63

krodhad bhavati sammohah
sammohat smrti-vibhramah
smrti-bhramsad buddhi-naso
buddhi-nasat pranasyati

WORD FOR WORD

krodhat -- from anger; bhavati -- takes place; sammohah -- perfect illusion; sammohat -- from illusion; smrti -- of memory; vibhramah -- bewilderment; smrti-bhramsat -- after bewilderment of memory; buddhi-nasah -- loss of intelligence; buddhi-nasat -- and from loss of intelligence; pranasyati -- one falls down.

TRANSLATION

From anger, complete delusion arises, and from delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered, intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost one falls down again into the material pool.

 



TEXT 64

raga-dvesa-vimuktais tu
visayan indriyais caran
atma-vasyair vidheyatma
prasadam adhigacchati

WORD FOR WORD

raga -- attachment; dvesa -- and detachment; vimuktaih -- by one who has become free from; tu -- but; visayan -- sense objects; indriyaih -- by the senses; caran -- acting upon; atma-vasyaih -- under one's control; vidheya-atma -- one who follows regulated freedom; prasadam -- the mercy of the Lord; adhigacchati -- attains.

TRANSLATION

But a person free from all attachment and aversion and able to control his senses through regulative principles of freedom can obtain the complete mercy of the Lord.

 



TEXT 65

prasade sarva-duhkhanam
hanir asyopajayate
prasanna-cetaso hy asu
buddhih paryavatisthate

WORD FOR WORD

prasade -- on achievement of the causeless mercy of the Lord; sarva -- of all; duhkhanam -- material miseries; hanih -- destruction; asya -- his; upajayate -- takes place; prasanna-cetasah -- of the happy-minded; hi -- certainly; asu -- very soon; buddhih -- intelligence; pari -- sufficiently; avatisthate -- becomes established.

TRANSLATION

For one thus satisfied, the threefold miseries of material existence exist no longer; in such satisfied consciousness, one's intelligence is soon well established.



TEXT 66

nasti buddhir ayuktasya
na cayuktasya bhavana
na cabhavayatah santir
asantasya kutah sukham

WORD FOR WORD

na asti -- there cannot be; buddhih -- transcendental intelligence; ayuktasya -- of one who is not connected; na -- not; ca -- and; ayuktasya -- of one devoid of God consciousness; bhavana -- fixed mind (in happiness); na -- not; ca -- and; abhavayatah -- of one who is not fixed; santih -- peace; asantasya -- of the unpeaceful; kutah -- where is; sukham -- happiness.

TRANSLATION

One who is not connected with the Supreme can have neither transcendental intelligence nor a steady mind, without which there is no possibility of peace. And how can there be any happiness without peace?

 



TEXT 67

indriyanam hi caratam
yan mano 'nuvidhiyate
tad asya harati prajnam
vayur navam ivambhasi

WORD FOR WORD

indriyanam -- of the senses; hi -- certainly; caratam -- while roaming; yat -- with which; manah -- the mind; anuvidhiyate -- becomes constantly engaged; tat -- that; asya -- his; harati -- takes away; prajnam -- intelligence; vayuh -- wind; navam -- a boat; iva -- like; ambhasi -- on the water.

TRANSLATION

As a boat on the water is swept away by a strong wind, even one of the roaming senses on which the mind focuses can carry away a man's intelligence.

 



TEXT 68

tasmad yasya maha-baho
nigrhitani sarvasah
indriyanindriyarthebhyas
tasya prajna pratisthita

WORD FOR WORD

tasmat -- therefore; yasya -- whose; maha-baho -- O mighty-armed one; nigrhitani -- so curbed down; sarvasah -- all around; indriyani -- the senses; indriya-arthebhyah -- from sense objects; tasya -- his; prajna -- intelligence; pratisthita -- fixed.

TRANSLATION

Therefore, O mighty-armed, one whose senses are restrained from their objects is certainly of steady intelligence.

 



TEXT 69

ya nisa sarva-bhutanam
tasyam jagarti samyami
yasyam jagrati bhutani
sa nisa pasyato muneh

WORD FOR WORD

ya -- what; nisa -- is night; sarva -- all; bhutanam -- of living entities; tasyam -- in that; jagarti -- is wakeful; samyami -- the self-controlled; yasyam -- in which; jagrati -- are awake; bhutani -- all beings; sa -- that is; nisa -- night; pasyatah -- for the introspective; muneh -- sage.

TRANSLATION

What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.

 



TEXT 70

apuryamanam acala-pratistham
samudram apah pravisanti yadvat
tadvat kama yam pravisanti sarve
sa santim apnoti na kama-kami

WORD FOR WORD

apuryamanam -- always being filled; acala-pratistham -- steadily situated; samudram -- the ocean; apah -- waters; pravisanti -- enter; yadvat -- as; tadvat -- so; kamah -- desires; yam -- unto whom; pravisanti -- enter; sarve -- all; sah -- that person; santim -- peace; apnoti -- achieves; na -- not; kama-kami -- one who desires to fulfill desires.

TRANSLATION

A person who is not disturbed by the incessant flow of desires -- that enter like rivers into the ocean, which is ever being filled but is always still -- can alone achieve peace, and not the man who strives to satisfy such desires.

 



TEXT 71

vihaya kaman yah sarvan
pumams carati nihsprhah
nirmamo nirahankarah
sa santim adhigacchati

WORD FOR WORD

vihaya -- giving up; kaman -- material desires for sense gratification; yah -- who; sarvan -- all; puman -- a person; carati -- lives; nihsprhah -- desireless; nirmamah -- without a sense of proprietorship; nirahankarah -- without false ego; sah -- he; santim -- perfect peace; adhigacchati -- attains.

TRANSLATION

A person who has given up all desires for sense gratification, who lives free from desires, who has given up all sense of proprietorship and is devoid of false ego -- he alone can attain real peace.

 



TEXT 72

esa brahmi sthitih partha
nainam prapya vimuhyati
sthitvasyam anta-kale 'pi
brahma-nirvanam rcchati

WORD FOR WORD

esa -- this; brahmi -- spiritual; sthitih -- situation; partha -- O son of Prtha; na -- never; enam -- this; prapya -- achieving; vimuhyati -- one is bewildered; sthitva -- being situated; asyam -- in this; anta-kale -- at the end of life; api -- also; brahma-nirvanam -- the spiritual kingdom of God; rcchati -- one attains.

TRANSLATION

That is the way of the spiritual and godly life, after attaining which a man is not bewildered. If one is thus situated even at the hour of death, one can enter into the kingdom of God.

 

 

 


Bhagavad-Gita