CHAPTER 13: States of consciousness
©2001, TheBhagavatGita.com



Text: 1-2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, 8-12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35

TEXT 1-2

arjuna uvaca
prakrtim purusam caiva
ksetram ksetra-jnam eva ca
etad veditum icchami
jnanam jneyam ca kesava

sri-bhagavan uvaca
idam sariram kaunteya
ksetram ity abhidhiyate
etad yo vetti tam prahuh
ksetra-jna iti tad-vidah

WORD FOR WORD

arjunah uvaca -- Arjuna said; Prakrtim -- nature; Purusam -- the enjoyer; ca -- also; eva -- certainly; ksetram -- the field; ksetra-jnam -- the knower of the field; eva -- certainly; ca -- also; etat -- all this; veditum -- to understand; icchami -- I wish; jnanam -- knowledge; jneyam -- the object of knowledge; ca -- also; kesava -- O Krishna; sri-bhagavan uvaca -- the Personality of Godhead said; idam -- this; sariram -- body; kaunteya -- O son of Kunti; ksetram -- the field; iti -- thus; abhidhiyate -- is called; etat -- this; yah -- one who; vetti -- knows; tam -- he; prahuh -- is called; ksetra-jnah -- the knower of the field; iti -- thus; tat-vidah -- by those who know this.

TRANSLATION

Arjuna said: O my dear Krishna, I wish to know about prakrti [nature], purusa [the enjoyer], and the field and the knower of the field, and of knowledge and the object of knowledge.

The Supreme said: This body, O son of Kunti, is called the field, and one who knows this body is called the knower of the field.

 



TEXT 3

ksetra-jnam capi mam viddhi
sarva-ksetresu bharata
ksetra-ksetrajnayor jnanam
yat taj jnanam matam mama

WORD FOR WORD

ksetra-jnam -- the knower of the field; ca -- also; api -- certainly; mam -- Me; viddhi -- know; sarva -- all; ksetresu -- in bodily fields; bharata -- O son of Bharata; ksetra -- the field of activities (the body); ksetra-jnayoh -- and the knower of the field; jnanam -- knowledge of; yat -- that which; tat -- that; jnanam -- knowledge; matam -- opinion; mama -- My.

TRANSLATION

O scion of Bharata, you should understand that I am also the knower in all bodies, and to understand this body and its knower is called knowledge. That is My opinion.

 



TEXT 4

tat ksetram yac ca yadrk ca
yad-vikari yatas ca yat
sa ca yo yat-prabhavas ca
tat samasena me srnu

WORD FOR WORD

tat -- that; ksetram -- field of activities; yat -- what; ca -- also; yadrk -- as it is; ca -- also; yat -- having what; vikari -- changes; yatah -- from which; ca -- also; yat -- what; sah -- he; ca -- also; yah -- who; yat -- having what; prabhavah -- influence; ca -- also; tat -- that; samasena -- in summary; me -- from Me; srnu -- understand.

TRANSLATION

Now please hear My brief description of this field of activity and how it is constituted, what its changes are, whence it is produced, who that knower of the field of activities is, and what his influences are.

 



TEXT 5

rsibhir bahudha gitam
chandobhir vividhaih prthak
brahma-sutra-padais caiva
hetumadbhir viniscitaih

WORD FOR WORD

rsibhih -- by the wise sages; bahudha -- in many ways; gitam -- described; chandobhih -- by Vedic hymns; vividhaih -- various; prthak -- variously; brahma-sutra -- of the Vedanta; padaih -- by the aphorisms; ca -- also; eva -- certainly; hetu-madbhih -- with cause and effect; viniscitaih -- certain.

TRANSLATION

That knowledge of the field of activities and of the knower of activities is described by various sages in various Vedic writings. It is especially presented in Vedanta-sutra with all reasoning as to cause and effect.

 



TEXTS 6-7

maha-bhutany ahankaro
buddhir avyaktam eva ca
indriyani dasaikam ca
panca cendriya-gocarah

iccha dvesah sukham duhkham
sanghatas cetana dhrtih
etat ksetram samasena
sa-vikaram udahrtam

WORD FOR WORD

maha-bhutani -- the great elements; ahankarah -- false ego; buddhih -- intelligence; avyaktam -- the unmanifested; eva -- certainly; ca -- also; indriyani -- the senses; dasa-ekam -- eleven; ca -- also; panca -- five; ca -- also; indriya-go-carah -- the objects of the senses; iccha -- desire; dvesah -- hatred; sukham -- happiness; duhkham -- distress; sanghatah -- the aggregate; cetana -- living symptoms; dhrtih -- conviction; etat -- all this; ksetram -- the field of activities; samasena -- in summary; sa-vikaram -- with interactions; udahrtam -- exemplified.

TRANSLATION

The five great elements, false ego, intelligence, the unmanifested, the ten senses and the mind, the five sense objects, desire, hatred, happiness, distress, the aggregate, the life symptoms, and convictions -- all these are considered, in summary, to be the field of activities and its interactions.

 



TEXTS 8-12

amanitvam adambhitvam
ahimsa ksantir arjavam
acaryopasanam saucam
sthairyam atma-vinigrahah

indriyarthesu vairagyam
anahankara eva ca
janma-mrtyu-jara-vyadhi-
duhkha-dosanudarshanam

asaktir anabhisvangah
putra-dara-grhadisu
nityam ca sama-cittatvam
istanistopapattisu

mayi cananya-yogena
bhaktir avyabhicarini
vivikta-desa-sevitvam
aratir jana-samsadi

adhyatma-jnana-nityatvam
tattva-jnanartha-darshanam
etajjnanam iti proktam
ajnanam yad ato 'nyatha

WORD FOR WORD

amanitvam -- humility; adambhitvam -- pridelessness; ahimsa -- nonviolence; ksantih -- tolerance; ariavam -- simplicity; acarya-upasanam -- approaching a bona fide spiritual master; saucam -- cleanliness; sthairyam -- steadfastness; atma-vinigrahah -- self-control; indriya-arthesu -- in the matter of the senses; vairagyam -- renunciation; anahankarah -- being without false egoism; eva -- certainly; ca -- also; janma -- of birth; mrtyu -- death; jara -- old age; vyadhi -- and disease; duhkha -- of the distress; dosa -- the fault; anudarshanam -- observing; asaktih -- being without attachment; anabhisvangah -- being without association; putra -- for son; dara -- wife; grha-adisu -- home, etc.; nityam -- constant; ca -- also; sama-cittatvam -- equilibrium; ista -- the desirable; anista -- and undesirable; upapattisu -- having obtained; mayi -- unto Me; ca -- also; ananya-yogena -- by unalloyed devotional service; bhaktih -- devotion; avyabhicarini -- without any break; vivikta -- to solitary; desa -- places; sevitvam -- aspiring; aratih -- being without attachment; jana-samsadi -- to people in general; adhyatma -- pertaining to the self; jnana -- in knowledge; nityatvam -- constancy; tattva-jnana -- of knowledge of the truth; artha -- for the object; darshanam -- philosophy; etat -- all this; jnanam -- knowledge; iti -- thus; proktam -- declared; ajnanam -- ignorance; yat -- that which; atah -- from this; anyatha -- other.

TRANSLATION

Humility; pridelessness; nonviolence; tolerance; simplicity; approaching a bona fide spiritual master; cleanliness; steadiness; self-control; renunciation of the objects of sense gratification; absence of false ego; the perception of the evil of birth, death, old age and disease; detachment; freedom from entanglement with children, wife, home and the rest; even-mindedness amid pleasant and unpleasant events; constant and unalloyed devotion to Me; aspiring to live in a solitary place; detachment from the general mass of people; accepting the importance of self-realization; and philosophical search for the Absolute Truth -- all these I declare to be knowledge, and besides this whatever there may be is ignorance.

 



TEXT 13

jneyam yat tat pravaksyami
yaj jnatvamrtam asnute
anadi mat-param brahma
na sat tan nasad ucyate

WORD FOR WORD

jneyam -- the knowable; yat -- which; tat -- that; pravaksyami -- I shall now explain; yat -- which; jnatva -- knowing; amrtam -- nectar; asnute -- one tastes; anadi -- beginningless; mat-param -- subordinate to Me; brahma -- spirit; na -- neither; sat -- cause; tat -- that; na -- nor; asat -- effect; ucyate -- is said to be.

TRANSLATION

I shall now explain the knowable, knowing which you will taste the eternal. Brahman, the spirit, beginningless and subordinate to Me, lies beyond the cause and effect of this material world.

 



TEXT 14

sarvatah pani-padam tat
sarvato 'ksi-siro-mukham
sarvatah srutimal loke
sarvam avrtya tisthati

WORD FOR WORD

sarvatah -- everywhere; pani -- hands; padam -- legs; tat -- that; sarvatah -- everywhere; aksi -- eyes; sirah -- heads; mukham -- faces; sarvatah -- everywhere; sruti-mat -- having ears; loke -- in the world; sarvam -- everything; avrtya -- covering; tisthati -- exists.

TRANSLATION

Everywhere are His hands and legs, His eyes, heads and faces, and He has ears everywhere. In this way the Supersoul exists, pervading everything.

 



TEXT 15

sarvendriya-gunabhasam
sarvendriya-vivarjitam
asaktam sarva-bhrc caiva
nirgunam guna-bhoktr ca

WORD FOR WORD

sarva -- of all; indriya -- senses; guna -- of the qualities; abhasam -- the original source; sarva -- all; indriya -- senses; vivarjitam -- being without; asaktam -- without attachment; sarva-bhrt -- the maintainer of everyone; ca -- also; eva -- certainly; nirgunam -- without material qualities; guna-bhoktr -- master of the gunas; ca -- also.

TRANSLATION

The Supersoul is the original source of all senses, yet He is without senses. He is unattached, although He is the maintainer of all living beings. He transcends the modes of nature, and at the same time He is the master of all the modes of material nature.

 



TEXT 16

bahir antas ca bhutanam
acaram caram eva ca
suksmatvat tad avijneyam
dura-stham cantike ca tat

WORD FOR WORD

bahih -- outside; antah -- inside; ca -- also; bhutanam -- of all living entities; acaram -- not moving; caram -- moving; eva -- also; ca -- and; suksmatvat -- on account of being subtle; tat -- that; avijneyam -- unknowable; dura-stham -- far away; ca -- also; antike -- near; ca -- and; tat -- that.

TRANSLATION

The Supreme Truth exists outside and inside of all living beings, the moving and the nonmoving. Because He is subtle, He is beyond the power of the material senses to see or to know. Although far, far away, He is also near to all.

 



TEXT 17

avibhaktam ca bhutesu
vibhaktam iva ca sthitam
bhuta-bhartr ca tajjneyam
grasisnu prabhavisnu ca

WORD FOR WORD

avibhaktam -- without division; ca -- also; bhutesu -- in all living beings; vibhaktam -- divided; iva -- as if; ca -- also; sthitam -- situated; bhuta-bhartr -- the maintainer of all living entities; ca -- also; tat -- that; jneyam -- to be understood; grasisnu -- devouring; prabhavisnu -- developing; ca -- also.

TRANSLATION

Although the Supersoul appears to be divided among all beings, He is never divided. He is situated as one. Although He is the maintainer of every living entity, it is to be understood that He devours and develops all.

 


 

TEXT 18

jyotisam api tajjyotis
tamasah param ucyate
jnanam jneyam jnana-gamyam
hrdi sarvasya visthitam

WORD FOR WORD

jyotisam -- in all luminous objects; api -- also; tat -- that; jyotih -- the source of light; tamasah -- the darkness; param -- beyond; ucyate -- is said; jnanam -- knowledge; jneyam -- to be